Diversity of Addictions

History of the addictions.
The use of psychoactive substance has become part of humanity from antique of civilization. The old primates ancestors of man has been like overripe fruits, contain one such amount of fermented sugars and ethyl alcohol. The ingestion of such fruits implicate adaptive advantage, which was rich in sugars with comparison with the less mature fruits. This can be the motive for the selection in development of alcoholic beverages. 

The addiction to substances is chronic pathologic, recurrent, progressive and in the end cause death. Characterized by the search and compulsive consumption of drugs, even be with wearable consequences. It is considered one disease of the brain because the psychoactive substances and the compulsive behavior modified the structure and functionality of such areas of the brain. It implied one dependency of the substance, activity or relationship to transform that cause in the regards circuit motivation and memory in the nucleus Accumbes.

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Intervention of the nucleus accumbens.

The accumbens nucleus is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus. It’s has a significant role in the cognitive processing of aversion, motivation reward. In this area of reward and reinforcement. The abuse of drugs induce neuroplasticity in the natural reward pathway, specially the nucleus Accumbens.

In the illustration are represented the dopaminergic pathways are routes of neurons of the brain that transmit dopamine which is produced from the soma of this neurons. The cellular bodies of the dopaminergic nerves in the substantia nigra are usually pigmented due the pigment melanin.  Psychoactive substances stimulate de mesolimbic pathway of dopamine which is the reward system of the brain.

Definition of Addiction.
It’s a chronic disease of the brain characterized by the pathologic look at the compensation and relief of the use of a substance or other conduct. That means the disability to control of behavior, difficulty for the permanent abstinence with the not content desire of consume and lack to accept the problem.

The result is descends in the quality of life from the person (problems in the job, in academic and relationship, with the family and the couple). The Neuroscience actually consider addiction to substances and the behavior show up the same neurobiological rots, Also, the consumption of psychoactive substances; exist in the process like addiction to sex, gambling, pornography, television, to sports and the addictions to new technology and internet.

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Abstinence syndrome
It is determined for the desire that consume the thoughts and behavior of the person, and acts in such activities designed to get the desire of wish effect and compromise the desire activities (addictive behavior). The dependencies bring consequences that affect the personal, health and social life, with limitation for the well function. It is pathologic the person that though that can not live without the addiction (sex, drugs, alcohol, smoke, etc.)

You can don’t go, if you first answer my question.  Do you think doing exercise regularly is something pathologic?    Give me you answer in the comments.